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CNC machine tool is the abbreviation of digital control machine tool, which is an automatic machine tool equipped with a program control system. The control system can logically process the programs with control codes or other symbol instructions, and decode them, so as to make the machine tool move and process parts.
The operation and monitoring of the CNC machine tool are all completed in this CNC unit, which is the brain of the CNC machine tool. Compared with ordinary machine tools, CNC machine tools have the following characteristics:
- ●High processing precision and stable processing quality;
- ●Multi-coordinate linkage can be carried out, and parts with complex shapes can be processed;
When machining parts change, generally only need to change the CNC program, which can save production preparation time;
The machine tool itself has high precision and high rigidity, can choose a favorable processing amount, and has high productivity (generally 3 to 5 times that of ordinary machine tools);
- ●The machine tool has a high degree of automation, which can reduce labor intensity;
- ● The requirements for the quality of the operators are higher, and the technical requirements for the maintenance personnel are higher.
CNC machine tools generally consist of the following parts:
- ●Host, it is the subject of CNC machine tools, including machine body, column, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical parts. It is a mechanical part used to complete various cutting processes.
The numerical control device is the core of the numerical control machine tool, including hardware (printed circuit board, CRT display, key box, paper tape reader, etc.) and corresponding software, used to input digital part programs, and complete the storage and data of input information The transformation, interpolation calculation and realization of various control functions.
- ●Drive device, which is the drive component of the CNC machine tool actuator, including spindle drive unit, feed unit, spindle motor and feed motor. Under the control of the numerical control device, it realizes the spindle and feed drive through the electric or electro-hydraulic servo system. When several feeds are linked, the processing of positioning, straight line, plane curve and space curve can be completed.
- ● Auxiliary devices, some necessary supporting parts of index-controlled machine tools to ensure the operation of CNC machine tools, such as cooling, chip removal, lubrication, lighting, monitoring, etc. It includes hydraulic and pneumatic devices, chip removal devices, exchange tables, CNC turntables and CNC indexing heads, as well as cutting tools and monitoring and testing devices.
- ●Programming and other ancillary equipment can be used to program and store parts outside the machine.
Since the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States developed the world’s first CNC machine tool in 1952, CNC machine tools have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, especially in the automotive, aerospace, and military industries. CNC technology is both in terms of hardware and software. , Both have rapid development.